Title of the course

MM 201 :  Structure of Materials



Credit structure

L          T          P          C

2           1          0           6



Pre-requisite, if any




Course content

Classification of materials. Geometry of crystals, symmetry and point groups, Bravais lattice, unit cells. Atomic packing factor and theoretical density. Fractional coordinates, Crystallographic directions and planes. Interplanar spacings and angles, zone axis.

Diffraction of X-Rays, Bragg’s Law, structure factor and intensity calculations. Applications of XRD: Identification of phases, lattice parameter determination, solvus line, crystallite size, superlattice lines.

Amorphous materials and glasses. Polymeric structures.

Defects in crystals. Point defects, dislocations, Burgers vector and its representation. Planar defects: stacking faults, twins, grain boundaries.

Equilibrium phase diagrams, cooling curves, phase rule, lever rule and invariant reactions. Introduction to important binary phase diagrams. Some examples: Fe-Fe3C, Cu-Zn, Al-Cu. Concept of microstructure. Optical microscopy. Microstructures in steels and cast iron.




M. De Graf and M.E. McHenry, Structure of Materials, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007.


D.F. Bloss, Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry: An Introduction, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1971.


B.D. Cullity, Elements of X-ray Diffraction, Prentice- Hall, 2001.


R. Abbaschian and R.E. Reed Hill, Physical Metallurgy Principles, Cengage-Engineering, 1991.


J.F. Shackelford, Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, Prentice-Hall, 1996.



Instructor(s) name

Prof. Sattish Vittha



L – Lecture, T – Tutorial, P – Practical, C - Credit